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Glossary of Industry Terms & Acronyms
000BASE-T 1000 Megabits per Second, Baseband, Twisted Pair 100BASE-T 100 Megabits per second, Baseband, Twisted pair 100BASE-T2 100 Megabits per Second, Baseband, Two-pair Category 3 UTP cables 100BASE-T4 100 Megabits per Second, Baseband, Four-pair Category 3 UTP cables 100VG 100 Voice Grade (IEEE 802.12 AnyLAN Standard) 10BASE-T 10 Megabits per second, Baseband, Twisted pair 1FB Single line, Flat Business rate 2G Second-Generation mobile 2W Two Wire 3G Third-Generation mobile 3G HSPA Third-Generation High-Speed Packet Access 3GIP Third Generation Internet Protocol 3GPP Third Generation Partnership Project 3GPP2 Third Generation Partnership Project 2 3GSM Third-generation Global System for Mobile (communications) 3RNGR Three Ringer 3WC Three Way Calling 3WO Third Wire Open 4G Fourth-Generation mobile 4W Four-Wire 4WA Four Wire Analog 4WAI Four-Wire Analog Interface 4WE&M Four-Wire Ear and Mouth 5G Fifth-Generation mobile 6G Sixth-Generation mobile 802.11 HR High data Rate IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN protocol 8PSK 8 Phase Shift Keying A-GNSS Assisted GNSS A-GPS Assisted GPS AAA Authentication, Authorization and Accounting AAL ATM Adaptation Layer AAL5 ATM Adaptation Layer 5 AB Access Burst AbisPC Abis Interface Port Control AC Alternating Current ACCH Associated Control CHannel AECID Adaptive Enhanced Cell Identity Access Domain A logical network handled by the OAM system and defined by the approved IPaddresses. One or more Access Domains makes up an EDA network, which is a switched Ethernet. An Access Domain is managed by one Collection Station. Access Provider The Access Provider owns the physical network, installs equipment and monitors network status and provides the basis for offering services to end-users. Account Management Account Management tracks usage of services in the network in order to handle billing or disable services for exceeded accounting limits. See also FCAPS. ACD Automatic Call Distribution, Typically used for a call center where a number of ACD agents answer incoming calls in the order they arrive in the queue. ACS Advanced Communication System ADN Additional Directory Number ADPCM Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation, a type of voice codec. ADSL Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line ADSL2+ Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line 2 Plus AIS Alarm Indication Signal AEC Acoustic Echo Cancellation AES 128-BIT Advanced Encryption Standard AFC Automatic Frequency Correction AGCH Access Grant CHannel AICP A Interface Common Procedure ALC Automatic Level Control ALM Alarm AMR Adaptive Multi Rate AMRFS Adaptive Multi Rate Full Speed AMRHS Adaptive Multi Rate Half Speed ANCD Automatic Network Call Distribution, an ACD system which is distributed over a private network. ANR Automatic Noise Restraint ANSI American National Standards Institute AoA Angle of Arrival APM Advanced Power Module APN Access Point Name APNSS Analog Private Network Signaling System, an older type of private networking where the network signaling is conveyed via a modem connection. APON ATM PON (Passive Optical Network). This was the first Passive optical network standard. It was used primarily for business applications, and was based on ATM. See also BPON and GPON. APP Application APS Automatic Protection Switchback ARP Address Resolution Protocol. A method for finding a host’s Ethernet address from its Internet address. An ARP request is sent to the network naming the IP address; then the machine with that IP address returns its physical address so it can receive the transmission. ARP proxy A function, embedded in an Ethernet device, that answers ARP requests on behalf of other devices. Used in switching and bridging equipment to limit broadcast traffic. Using one machine to respond to ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) requests for another machine.The proxy machine routes transmission packets to the proper destination. ARP requests Requests, broadcasted within Ethernets in order to get MAC addresses to use for transmission towards known IP addresses. ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A network technology that enables the transmission of data, voice, audio, video, and frame relay traffic in real time. ATA Advance Technology Attachement, ATA is a standard hard disk bus interface. ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATS Analog Telephone Set ATT Attach-Detach Allowed Backhaul In a hierarchical telecommunications network the backhaul portion of the network comprises the intermediate links between the core network, or backbone network and the small sub-networks at the “edge” of the entire hierarchical network. Backup Manager A GUI client for handling backup of data in the PEM system. BAM Back Administration Module Baseband Telephony Traditional analog telephony as supplied from a local exchange. See also POTS. BBU Baseband Control Unit BCCH Broadcast Control CHannel BEP Bit Error Probability BER Bit Rate Error Best Effort A transport service, defined in IEEE 802.1Q and normally used for transfer of data when no special requirements to Quality of Service (QoS) are specified. BFD Bidirectional Forwarding Detection BG Border Gateway BIU Base station Interface Unit BKP Backplane Board BLES Broadband Loop Emulation Service. A method using ATM with AAL2 adaptation layer encapsulation, recommended by ATM Forum. BM Basic Module BMACT Basic Module Active Codec Type BMRC BM Resource Control BOM Bill Of Materials BR Backwards Reporting BRA Basic Rate Access BRI Basic Rate Intrerface (ISDN 2B+D) BPON Broadband PON is a standard based on APON. It adds support for WDM, dynamic and higher upstream bandwidth allocation, and survivability. It also created a standard management interface, called OMCI, between the OLT and ONU/ONT, enabling mixed-vendor networks. See also APON and GPON. BQ Bad quality BRAS Broadband Remote Access Server. A BRAS is a multi-service access node to manage IP service access for a large number of subscribers. See also VLAN. Broadband A transmission bandwidth higher than 2Mbps. BSC Base Station Controller BSCOM BSC O&M BSIC Base Station Identity Code BSSAP Base Station Subsystem Application Part BSSAP+ Base Station Subsystem Application Part Plus BSSGP Base Station System GPRS Protocol BTS Base Transceiver Station BTSCP BTS Common Processing BTSOM BTS O&M BTSTRC BTS Transmission Resource Control Burst Tolerance (BT) The maximum time for which the source may transmit the PCR. BVC BSSGP Virtual Connection BVCI BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier Carrier Ethernet 2.0 / CE 2.0 MEF Certified Service Providers to certify that their E-Line, E-LAN, E-Tree and/or E-Access services are compliant with the relevant MEF specifications Equipment Vendors to certify that their products support delivery of E-Line, E-LAN, E-Tree and/or E-Access services through compliance with the relevant specifications The Carrier Ethernet 2.0 certification program is a continuation of the highly successful MEF Certification Program that began in 2005 and has resulted in over 1,000 services and devices certified as MEF 9, MEF 14 and MEF 18 compliant. Carrier Grade Designates highly reliable equipment intended for use in telecommunication (central office and backbone installations). CAS Channel Associated Signaling CAT-iq Cordless Advanced Technology – Internet and Quality CB Central Battery CBR Constant Bit Rate CCM Call Center Manager CCS Common Channel Signaling ccTLD Country Code Top Level Domain CDN Content Distribution Network Cell The unit of data, transferred as an entity through an ATM network. A cell has a fixed length of 53 bytes. Central Office Building with telecommunication equipment. Also referred to as CO. CID Cell Identity CIL Call Information Logging Class 5 services Telephony supplementary services, provided by a local exchange, as opposed to Class 4 services, provided by a PBX. Class 5 services are services like Call Hold, Call Forwarding, Call Waiting, Call Transfer, 3tpy and Conference Call. CLIP Calling Line Identification Presentation CME Configuration Management Express CMUA Central monitoring unit type A CMUE Central monitoring unit type E CO Central Office CO-OAM Co-Operation and Maintenance CO-RNP&RNO Co-Radio Network Planning & Radio Network Optimization CO-RRM Co-Radio Resource Management CO-TRM Co-Transmission Management Collection Domain The network monitored by a Collection Station. In EDA identical with the Access Domain. Collection Station A Collection Station (CS) is a remote point in a distributed installation of HP OpenView Network Node Manager (NNM). Multiple Collection Stations can connect to a Management Station to form an NNM distributed system. When the HP OpenView NNM is installed on a server it is configured to be either a Management Station or a Collection Station. The Collection Station software is installed on the Domain Server. Configuration A logical group of parameters with specific values. An operator can set a number of parameters in one operation. A Configuration can be compared to a profile or a template. Configuration Management Managing configuration of resources in PEM and the network elements, both in terms of viewing, setting and backing up configuration parameters. Examples are network engineering, software upgrading, managing end-users and services, backup/restore, discovery of new resources in the network and keeping an inventory list. CPE Customer Premises Equipment CPRI Common public radio interface CS Collection Station CSTA Computer Supported Telecommunication Applications CTI Computer Telephony Integration DASL Digital Adapter for Subscriber Loop, DASL is the line interface for Digital telephones. DASS Digital Access Signalling System Database The database contains all data related to the IP DSLAMs, subscribers, end-users and O&M Operators. The database is a standard SQL Sybase® database. DBA Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation DC Direct Current DCDU Direct current distribution unit DCE Data Communication Equipment DECT Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications, see also CAT-IQ DHCP The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is an Internet protocol for automating the configuration of computers that use TCP/IP. DHCP can be used to automatically assign IP addresses, to deliver TCP/IP stack configuration parameters such as the subnet mask and default router, and to provide other configuration information such as the addresses for printer, time and news servers. DHCP server Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol server. A configuration server, capable of configuring hosts with a variety of information required for their operation. In EDA there is one or more DHCP servers for each Access Domain. DID Direct In Dialing DIDO Distributed In, Distributed Out Differentiated services A priority based approach to providing transport services with distinct QoS in packet based networks. The differentiated services approach relies on each network element to invoke the network QoS policy hop-by-hop. DISA Direct Inward System Access DND Do Not Disturb DNIS Dialed Number Information Service DNS Domain Name System Domain Server A Domain Server is a server computer that handles part of the network managed by PEM. The Domain Server will host an NNM Collection Station and a Domain Service (which links the application software to NNM), and probably also a DHCP Server and a Domain File Server. Domain Service Also referred to as PEM Domain Service has two functions: Interface between NNM and the other EDA specific elements and interface between the EDA servers and the IP DSLAMs (a protocol converter between CORBA and SNMP). There are two types of Domain Services: PEM Management Domain Service, and PEM Access Domain Service. DoS Denial of Service DPNSS Digital Private Networking Signaling System, a signaling system used between PABX’s. DSL Refers to Digital Subscriber Lines. DSL technologies use sophisticated modulation schemes to pack data onto copper wires. DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer DTMF Dual Tone Multiple Frequency DTS Digital Telephone Set Dual Latency An ADSL option, enabling establishment of two separate physical channels with different characteristics on an ADSL line. The characteristics in question are bit error rate and delay, which are traded off against each other. E1 2 Mbit/s interface (ETSI) E-Band “E-Band” lies in the extremely high frequency bands from 71 to 76 gigahertz (GHz), 81 to 86 GHz and 92 to 95 GHz. It is being used for short range, high bandwidth communications (see also V-Band). E-CID Enhanced Cell Identity E-SMLC Enhanced SMLC E&M Ear andMouth (Tie Line Signaling), line signaling for basically analog tie lines. EAN Ethernet Access Node EC European Commission ECF External Call Forwarding, the ability to forward incoming calls to subscribers in the PSTN. ECMA European Computer Manufactures Association ECN Ethernet Controller Node EDA Official product name for the EDA product. EDA Core System Mandatory parts of an EDA access system. EDN Ethernet DSL Node comprises EDN110 and EDN312. ESPA European Selective Paging manufacturing Association EDF Ethernet DSL Filter Edge Node The node that connects the switched Ethernet of the EDA with the backbone network (can be either data network or telephony network). EMC Electromagnetic compatibility EMP Ethernet DSL Node EMUA Environment monitoring unit type A End-user An end-user is a consumer of services in the access network. The end-user is physically connected to the network and is uniquely identified in PEM. Services are given to and removed from end-users. Engineering Engineering is typically also referred to as Network Engineering. The work prior to the network goes into operation. (Engineering is not part of FCAPS). Engineering includes: Network planning, (IP addresses, usage and location of Domain Servers), installation of equipment (switches, IP DSLAMs, servers), initial configuration of equipment (assigning IP addresses, subnet, defining management VLAN), “loading” equipment into the management system. EoSDH Ethernet over SDH EPL Ethernet Private Line EPN Ethernet Power Node EPS Embedded power system EPU Enhanced Packet forward Unit Erlang Erlang is a unit of measurement for telephony traffic. One Erlang corresponds to one telephony connection. Ethernet Access Node The EAN is a logical node built on the ECN320 switch with built-in EMP function. Ethernet Power Node Power supply for Power over Ethernet (PoE) devices comprises EPN124 and EPN102. ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute EURid European Registry for Internet Domains EVPL Ethernet Virtual Private Line EXN Ethernet Converter Node FM Fault Management (FM) covers the area of viewing and handling alarms coming from the PEM or the managed network. Also logging, filtering and correlating alarms are handled within this functional area. FCAPS The term covers different functional areas within the discipline of network management. FCC Federal Communications Commission of the United States FDD Frequency Division Duplex FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface FDMA Frequency Division, Multiple Access FE-E1 Fast Ethernet to E1 converter used for small sites in for example a back-to-back transmission solution. FOSS Free and Open Source Software Frame The unit of data, transferred as an entity through an Ethernet. FRL/TCM Facility Restriction Level / Traveling Class Mark, also referred to as Trunk Call Barring, the FRL/TCM enables selective restriction of outgoing traffic according to each users FRL/TCM value. FTTB Fiber-to-the-Business FTTC Fiber-to-the-Curb FTTH Fibre-to-the-Home FTTx Fibre-to-the-X FTP File Transfer Protocol FXS Foreign Exchange Station G.711 The voice codec standard normally used for telephony in digital exchange equipment within the switched circuit network. GAD Geographical Area Description GB Gigabyte Gbps Gigabit per second GIS Global Information System GMLC Gateway Mobile Location Center GNSS Global Navigation Satellite System GPON Gigabit PON) is an evolution of the BPON standard. It supports higher rates, enhanced security, and choice of Layer 2 protocol (ATM, GEM, Ethernet). See also APON and BPON. GPS Global Positioning System GSM Global System for Mobile Communications GSMA Global Systems for Mobile Communications Association GSR Global Symposium for Regulators H.323 A suite of protocols, standardized by ITU for use in multimedia applications, for example Voice over IP (VoIP) HAU Heater assembly unit HD High Bandwidth HPMI Hert Power Monitoring Interface unit HPOV Hewlett Packard Open View – a term for packages used for viewing networks. HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol HUt High Unit IaaS Infrastructure-as-a-Service IAD Integrated Access Device – a generic term for various customer equipment. IBBS Integrated Backup Battery System IC4D Information and Communications for Development ICT Information and Communication Technology IDA Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore IDB Inter-American Development Bank IDN International Domain Name IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers IETF Internet Engineering Task Force In-band Telephony Means that the ADSL/IP also has voice (Voice over IP) transmission within the ADSL/IP signal. This is called Telephony over IP. See also Baseband. Installation Manager The Installation Manager is a client of the Installation Server, and is installed on the Management Center. The Installation Manager is aimed at the Access Provider. Installation Server This server interfaces between the EDA GUI’s, Database, IP DSLAM (through the PEM Domain Service) and NNM. Interacting Function Protocol converter function, embedded in gateways and IADs. I/O Input/Output IMSO International Mobile Satellite Organization IP Internet Protocol IP DSLAM The cornerstone in the EDA solution a small, compact DSLAM (EDN108 and EDN110). IP DSLAM port A single DSL interface in the IP DSLAM (EDN108 and EDN110). IP MSAN IP Multi-Service Access Node IP/MPLS Internet Protocol / Multi-protocol Label Switching IPTV Internet Protocol Television ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network ISO International Standardization Organization ISOC Internet Society IT Information Technology ITSO International Telecommunications Satellite Organization ITU International Telecommunication Union ITU – R International Telecommunication Union Radio communication Sector IXP Internet Exchange Point LAN Local Area Network LATA Local Access and Transport Area Latency The amount of time it takes a packet to get to its destination. LBS Location-Based Service LCS Location Services LCS-AP LCS Application Protocol LED Light Emitting Diode Link Aggregation Grouping parallel Ethernet links into a single logical link. Defined in IEEE 802.1 ad. LMT Local maintenance terminal LNR Last Number Redial Load Sharing A feature of Link Aggregation, distributing the load over the grouped links. Local loop The physical line traditionally used for POTS telephony, that is, the copper connecting subscribers to the central office installation. LPP LTE Positioning Protocol LPPa LPP Annex LSA-PLUS 8/10 Notation of connector from KRONE. Available as LSA-PLUS 8 and LSA-PLUS 10 for mounitng on a Back-Mount frame. LSA-Profile 8/10 Notation of connector from KRONE. Available as LSA-Profile 8 and LSA-Profile 10 for mounting on a Profile Rod or a Backmount frame. LSA Filter Compact POTS filter in a similar mechanical design as the IP DSLAM. LTE LTE, or Long Term Evolution, is the global standard for the fourth generation of mobile networks (4G) supported by all major players in the industry. LTE offers the capacity and the speed to handle a rapid increase in data traffic with close to 5 billion mobile broadband subscriptions in 2016. M2M Machine to Machine MAC Media Access Control MAC address Media Access Control address. The physical address of a device connected to a network, expressed as a 6 byte hexadecimal number. Management Center Work Station (PC) used for running manager applications. Management Domain The network managed by a Management Station (also through Collection Stations). Management Server The core of the PEM, which contains the database, PEM application servers and HPOV Management Station. Management Station A Management Station is the central point in a distributed installation of HP OpenView NNM to which multiple Collection Stations can connect. When the NNM is installed on a server it is configured to be either a Management Station or a Collection Station. MB Megabyte Mbps Megabit per second MBS Maximum Burst Size is the maximum number of cells for which the source may transmit the Peak Cell Rate. MDF Main Distribution Frame MDM Main Distribution Module MDT Minimization of Drive Tests MEF The MEF, as the defining body for Carrier Ethernet is a global industry alliance comprising more than 200 organizations including telecommunications service providers, cable MSOs, network equipment/software manufacturers, semiconductors vendors and testing organizations. MER MAC Encapsulation Routing MHz Megahertz MIMO Multiple In, Multiple Out MME Mobility Management Entity MMl Man Machine Language, industry standard command line language used to manage telecommunications network elements. MMS Multimidia Messaging Service MSAN Multi-Service Access Node MSR Multi-Standard Radio MTBF Mean operation Time Between Failures Multimode DSL One line card provides both VDSL2 and ADSL/ADSL2/ADSL2+ configurable per line MW Message Waiting NAPT Network Address and Port Translation NAT Network Address Translation. A method that allows a multiple number of computers within a local network to connect to the Internet though one IP address.Network Address Translation can also act as a firewall by preventing outside computers from connecting with the local network, unless it is a connection initiated from within the local network. NBN National Broadband Network NENA National Emergency Number Association (US) NCM The Network Configuration Manager is a GUI used for management of IP DSLAMs and their related servers (Domain File Server and DHCP Server). The Network Configuration Manager is a client of the Network Configuration Server, aimed at the Access Provider. NCS Network Configuration Server, this server interfaces between the GUI’s, database, IP DSLAMs (through the PEM Domain Service) and NNM NGA Next-Generation Access NGN Next-Generation Networks NO A Network Operator is an individual working in the Access Provider organization. The Network Operators are responsible for managing and maintaining the access network, for example installation of new equipment and alarm monitoring. NMS Short for Network Management System. An overlaying management system that can interact with the PEM through the North bound interface. NNM Short for Network Node Manager, an HPOV package for viewing a network topology, managing fault and performance data. Available as a collection station (CS) or Management Station (MS). NRT-VBR Non-Real-Time Variable Bit Rate O&M Operation and maintenance OLT Optical Line Terminal OMC Operation and maintenance center Operation Center Center where Operation and Maintenance takes place. Operator An Operator is a person or an IT system that can access the PEM system. An Operator can log in to PEM and execute actions according to the security profile defined for the Operator. Operator roles can be: Network Operator; Service Operator; Subscriber Operator. OSI Open Systems Interconnection OSS Operations Support System OTDOA Observed Time Difference of Arrival OVP Over Voltage Protection PA Power amplifier PABX Private Automatic Branch Exchange (see also PBX) Packet A format in which data is transmitted over an IP network A packet contains the data itself as well as addresses, error checking, and other information necessary to ensure the packet arrives intact at its intended destination. PC Personal Computer PDA Personal Digital Assistant PBX Private Branch Exchange (see also PABX) Peak Cell Rate (PCR) The Peak Cell Rate is an ATM term which defines the maximum bit rate that may be transmitted from the source. In EDA it is the maximum capacity which the PVC is permitted to use. PCM Pulse Code Modulation PEM Public Ethernet Manager. PEM is the management system solution for the EDA. PEM Access Domain Service PEM Access Domain Service is the PEM Domain Service installed on a Domain server. PEM Application All PEM specific SW developed by Ericsson. PEM Domain Service See Domain Service. PEM Management Domain Service PEM Management Domain Service is the PEM Domain Service installed on a Management server. PIN Personal Identification Number PLMN Public Land Mobile Network PM Performance Management (PM) is the area of tracking the usage of resources in the network, typically communication links. Often the objective is to support the capacity planning process and find bottlenecks in the system. Data can be collected and stored, and an Operator can extract the data and view them. PMU Power monitoring unit PoE Power over Ethernet PON Passive optical network. See also APON, BPON and GPON. PoP Point of Presence which means the place where the Service Provider is present. POTS Plain Old Telephone Service.The standard analog telephone service. Power over Ethernet Power supplying devices through category 5, 6 and 7 LAN cables. PPP Point to Point Protocol. A protocol for communication between computers using TCP/IP. PPPoE Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet. A small protocol for using PPP over Ethernet networks. PQ Priority Queue PRA Primary Rate Access PRI Primary Rate Interface PSAP Public Safety Answering Point PSTN Public Switched Telephony Network PSU Power supply unit PTM Packet Transfer Mode Public Ethernet Access Common term for EDA, FEA, TAG and PEM solutions. PVC Permanent Virtual Circuit/Channel. A point-to-point connection in the ATM layer. QoS Quality of Service. QRG Quick Reference Guide QSIG ISDN signaling over the Q-reference point Retailer A place where a subscriber can buy for example an ADSL solution. RADIUS (RFC2138) Remote Authentication Dial In User Service. An authentication and accounting system used by many ISPs. Rain Fade Rain fade refers primarily to the absorption of a microwave radio frequency (RF) signal by atmospheric rain, snow or ice, and losses are especially prevalent at frequencies above 11 Ghz. It also refers to the degradation of a signal caused by the electromagnetic interference of the leading edge of a storm front. Rain fade can be caused by precipitation at the uplink or downlink location. However, it does not need to be raining at a location for it to be affected by rain fade, as the signal may pass through precipitation many miles away, especially if the satellite dish has a low look angle. From 5 to 20 percent of rain fade or satellite signal attenuation may also be caused by rain, snow or ice on the uplink or downlink antenna reflector, radome or feed horn. RAN Radio-Access Network RAT Radio-Access Technology RF Radio Frequency RFC Radio frequency cabinet RFU Radio frequency unit RRU Remote radio unit RSS Remote Sub System RSS filter Compact clip-on POTS filter for the Ericsson RSTD Reference Signal Time Difference RTCP Real-time Transport Control Protocal RTP Real Time Protocol RT-VBR Real-Time Variable Bit Rate SaaS Software-as-a-Service SARI Secondary Access Right Identity (DECT) SCM The Service Configuration Manager is a GUI used for handling end-users and their IP services. The Service Configuration Manager is a client application of the Subscriber server. SCSI Small Computer System Interface SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy is the physical layer in the ATM network. SDP Session Description Protocol SDR Software-defined radio SELT Single Ended Line Test Security Manager GUI used for PEM user’s management. Security Server The Security Server interfaces between the Security Manager and the database. Server The term Server in the PEM can be either a robust computer with high specifications (as opposed to a workstation) or a SW application. Service Broker The Service Broker is the organizational entity supporting the access network with specific services, such as Internet or Video. Service Configuration A Service Configuration is a setting of parameters defining a service to be offered through the access network. SIM Subscriber Identity Module SIP Session Initiation Protocol SLPU Signal Lightning Protection Unit SME Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise SMS Short Message Service SOp A Service Operator is an individual working in the Access Provider organization. The Service Operators are responsible for service and Service Broker related issues within the Access Provider organization. SP A Service Provider – provider of services also called content provider, for example Internet access service, contend services or firewall services. Service provider equipment may be located anywhere in the network. SPI Serial Peripheral Interface SLP SUPL Location Platform SIMO Single Input, Multiple Output SMLC Serving Mobile Location Center SNMP Short for Simple Network Management Protocol, a set of protocols for managing networks. SMS Short Message Service, a text message that can be send in a GSM or DECT network. SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol So ISDN terminal interface Spanning Tree A protocol specified in IEEE 802.1Q, allowing links to be physically available but unused, until another link breaks. Spanning Tree creates a tree structure without loops and changes this structure in case of failure. SRS Sounding Reference Signal SSID Subscriber Set Identifier SW Software Status Manager A GUI client shows the line status of the IP DSLAM (8 or 10 lines) and the FE-E1 converter (4 lines). Subscriber Operator A Subscriber Operator is an individual working in the Service Broker organization. The Subscriber Operators are responsible for handling service related issues for subscribers and end-users within the Service Broker organization. Subscriber Server This server interfaces between the GUI’s, 112 1/1551-HSC 901 35/3 Uen C 2005-12-02 database, IP-DSLAMs (through the PEM Domain Service) and NNM. SUPL Secure User Plane Location Sustainable Cell Rate (SCR) The upper limit for the average cell rate that may be transmitted in the PVC. T1 1.5Mbit/s interface (ANSI) TAG Telephony Access Gateway TAPI Telephone Application Programming Interface TASIM Trans-Eurasian Information Super Highway Project TCD Trunk Call Discrimination TCO Total cost of ownership TCE Thermoelectric cooling unit TCP Transmission Control Protocol TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol TDD Time Division Duplex TDM Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a type of digital (or rarely analog) multiplexing in which two or more bit streams or signals are transferred appearing simultaneously as sub-channels in one communication channel, but are physically taking turns on the channel. TDMA Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared medium networks. It allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into different time slots. TDMA is a type of Time-division multiplexing (see also above), with the special point that instead of having one transmitter connected to one receiver, there are multiple transmitters. TDOA Time Difference of Arrival TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol Time Synchronization Server The Time Synchronization Server is used for setting the real time in the system elements. The real time is used for making the time stamps in log files and alarms, and in the IP DSLAM also for the Remote Storage. The Server is optional in the Domain Server, but there must be a Time Synchronization Server present in the system TKIP Temporal Key Integrity Protocol TLD Top-Level Domain TMC Transport Management Cabinet TMT Technology, Media, Telecommunications ToA Time of Arrival ToIP Telephony over IP Transport service A service, accessible for the users of a network, providing consistent and well defined transmission conditions in terms of for example throughput, packet loss and delay. UAS Universal Access and Service UBR Unspecified Bit Rate UE User Equipment UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Unbundling The process of enabling competitive carrier access to the local loop in order to liberalize the telecommunications market. URL Uniform Resource Locator USB Universal Serial Bus UTDOA Uplink Time Difference of Arrival UUI User to User Information V5.2 multilink V5.2, including the option of supporting more than a single E1 system V5.2 A standard for Local Exchange and Network Access Node interconnection, using dynamic allocation of E1 time slots as voice bearer media V-Band The V band (vee-band) of the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from 50 to 75 GHz. The V band is not heavily used. The V band is also used for high capacity terrestrial millimeter wave communications systems. All communications links in the V band require unobstructed line of sight between the transmit and receive point, and rain fade must be taken into account when performing link budget analysis. VDSL Very High Bit Digital Subscriber Line VDSL2 Very High Bit Digital Subscriber Line 2 Plus VLAN Virtual LAN. A method used to separate and group traffic within a physical LAN. VLAN ID A numerical value identifying a certain VLAN. VM Voice Mail VoBB Voice over Broadband VoGW Voice Gateway VoIP Voice over IP VPN Virtual Private Network. Secure communication between multiple networks or network devices using insecure public networks, such as the Internet. VSAT Very Small Aperture Terminal WAN Wide Area Network WAP Wireless Application Protocol W-CDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy WFQ Weighted Fair Queuing Wi-Fi Certified The Wi-Fi Alliance is a global non-profit industry association of hundreds of leading companies devoted to seamless connectivity. With technology development, market building, and regulatory programs, the Wi-Fi Alliance has enabled widespread adoption of Wi-Fi worldwide. WLAN Wireless LAN (Local Area Network) WPS Wi-Fi Protected Setup WRC World Radio Communication Conference WSIS World Summit on the Information Society WTIM World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Meeting

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